By Bimal K. Matilal, A. Chakrabarti
By no means ahead of, in any anthology, have modern epistemologists and philosophers of language come jointly to deal with the only such a lot overlooked very important factor on the confluence of those branches of philosophy, particularly: will we recognize evidence from trustworthy reviews? along with Hume's subversive dialogue of miracles and the literature thereon, testimony has been bypassed through such a lot Western philosophers; while in classical Indian (Pramana) theories of proof and data philosophical debates have raged for hundreds of years in regards to the prestige of word-generated wisdom. ̀Is the reaction "I used to be informed by means of knowledgeable at the topic" as first rate as "I observed" or "I inferred" in resolution to "How do you know?"' is a question replied in varied and refined methods by way of Buddhists, Vaisesikas and Naiyayikas. For the 1st time this publication makes on hand the riches of these debates, translating from Sanskrit a few modern Indian Pandits' reactions to Western analytic money owed of that means and information. For complicated undergraduates in philosophy, for researchers - in Australia, Asia, Europe or the US - on epistemology, idea of that means, Indian or comparative philosophy, in addition to for experts drawn to this particularly clean subject of data transmission and epistemic dependence this e-book may be a dinner party. After its e-book analytic philosophy and Indian philosophy may have no excuse for shunning each one other. Read more...
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Additional resources for Knowing from Words : Western and Indian Philosophical Analysis of Understanding and Testimony
It is IRREDUCIBLE MODE OF WORD-GENERATED KNOWLEDGE? e. a prama1)a must reside in the soul. It is to the second objection that we need to attend: are there such objects as are neither objects of perception nor objects of inference but are objects of word-generated knowledge? This last question is decisive in our present context only if one holds the general position that there is, in a certain sense, a strict correlation between types of entities and types of knowledge. Thus one can hold that objects of perception are knowable only by perception, the objects of inference only by inference, and likewise objects of word-generated cognition only by such cognition.
If we are to say, as we must, that the knowledge we derive from testimony depends on perception, must we not equally say that the knowledge we derive from perception depends generally on testimony, on verbally transmitted instruction and information? Kant said that intuitions without concepts were blind. In the present context we may modify the dictum and give it a more immediate relevance and resonance by saying: perception without the concepts and attendant information which derive from the spoken or written word is, if not blind, pitifully short-sighted.
Just as a word refers to an entity, so does a sentence refer to a complex relational entity. To know the meaning of a word is to know what entity it denotes. The same holds good in the case of a sentence. To understand a sentence is to know what relational entity it designates. The word 'cow' means, denotes, refers to, either the universal cowness (on the Mlmamsa theory) or a particular cow as possessing that universal (on the Nyaya theory). The sentence "The cow is white" expresses, means or refers to a relational structure whose components are the referents of "cow" and "white" (and the implied relation between them).